Document titles [009]


Encoding of document titles on the title page using <docTitle> and <titlePart>, including possible values for the type= attribute of <titlePart>


The WWP uses the TEI element <titlePart> to encode the various parts of the title of a work as it appears on its own title page or in the colophon, using attribute values to distinguish between the functions of the various parts. These <titlePart> elements should always be nested within a <docTitle> element.

For titles of other documents or texts (or the title of the same document appearing anywhere but the title page or colophon) the WWP uses the TEI <title> element. We use it in an expanded sense to encode titles of any sort, whether of written documents, images, or pieces of music, wherever they occur, either in a formal bibliographic structure such as <bibl>, or in passing references. We only use this element to encode actual titles, not vaguer references (e.g. “Homer’s masterpiece”), but we do use <title> for titles which are incorrect or incomplete.

This usage of <title> should not be confused with the use of <head> to encode the headings of parts of the document itself, such as poem titles, chapter titles, etc.

We encode all titles, not only those which are renditionally distinct.

The type= attribute values for <titlePart> are as follows:

main : the main title of the work. If the title is one syntactic unit, not divided by colons or falling into two separate logical components, the title need not be subdivided into more than one <titlePart>, and that one should be type=“main”.

sub : the subtitle of the work. If the title falls into two syntactic units, particularly if the second is subordinate to the first, then they should be encoded as <titlePart type="main"> and <titlePart type="sub">, respectively. See examples below.

alt : an alternative title of the work, often signalled by the word “or”. The linking word should be included in the <titlePart type="alt">. See examples below.

address: a title part which indicates that the work is addressed to a particular person, organization, or other entity. This value should not be used if this is the only titlePart present. Phrases which signal the use of “address” would be “To...” or “Inscribed to...” or “Written to...”, etc.

desc : a descriptive paraphrase of the work included in title. This is typically a separate syntactic unit from the main title; it differs from a subtitle by being less the title of the work than a description of the work. See examples below.

vol: a title part which is a reference to the number of volumes or to the specific volume number

second: the title of another item included in the document, often introduced by phrases like “Together with...” or “To which is added...”. See examples below.

reason: a title part which describes the reason or occasion upon which the document was composed. This should be used only when it is clearly distinguishable from the main title and where it is the only applicable value; it should not be used for a main title which happens to describe the reason.

Any punctuation falling between two segments of a title should be encoded as part of the first segment; however, linking words such as “or” should be encoded as part of the second segment (which is where they belong syntactically).


Example 1.
<titlePart type="main">The Sociable Companions</titlePart> <titlePart type="alt">or, The Female Wits</titlePart>

Example 2.
<titlePart type="main">Her Majesties most Princely answere,</titlePart> <titlePart type="desc">delivered by her selfe at the Court at White-hall, on the last day of November&hellip;</titlePart>

Example 3.
<titlePart type="main">Margaret of Anjou.</titlePart> <titlePart type="desc">A Poem</titlePart>

Example 4.
<titlePart type="main">The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II, King of England, and Lord of Ireland</titlePart> <titlePart type="sub">With the Rise and Fall of his Great Favourites, Gaveston and the Spencers</titlePart>

Example 5.
<titlePart type="main">A Patchwork Screen for the Ladies;</titlePart> <titlePart type="alt">or, Love and Virtue Recommended:</titlePart> <titlePart type="desc">In a Collection of Instructive Novels. Related After a Manner intirely New, and interspersed with Rural Poems, describing the Innocence of a Country-Life</titlePart>

Example 6.
<titlePart type="main">Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Elizabeth Carter,</titlePart> <titlePart type="sub">With a New Edition of her Poems;</titlePart> <titlePart type="second">To which are added, some Miscellaneous Essays in Prose,</titlePart> <titlePart type="second">Together with her Notes on the Bible</titlePart> <titlePart type="sub">and Answers to Objections concerning the Christian Religion.</titlePart>

Example 7.
<titlePart type="main">The Complete Works of Mrs. Hannah Cowley</titlePart> <titlePart type="vol">In Three Volumes.</titlePart> <titlePart type="vol">Volume I</titlePart>

Example 8.
<titlePart type="main">An Address to Parliament:</titlePart> <titlePart type="sub">Concerning the Spanish Armada and its Infamous Attack upon the People and Goods of England.</titlePart> <titlePart type="reason">Composed upon the occasion of our glorious victory.</titlePart>

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