Bibliographic references [021]


Encoding of bibliographic references using <bibl>, including guidelines for identifying bibliographic references and when not to encode them.


The WWP uses <bibl> as described in TEI to encode bibliographic references to works outside the text. However, our use of it is generally limited to cases where references are structurally distinct (such as references associated with epigraphs or block quotations) or grouped together in lists (such as in bibliographies, endnotes, or other systematic lists of texts and authors), or where the reference has both the form and the content of a complete bibliographic reference. We also use <bibl> to encode bibliographic information in advertisements. We do not use <bibl> to encode casual references to authors and titles which occur in running prose or in passing, even if they are associated with a quotation. In such cases we use <title> and <persName> as appropriate. In cases where a casual citation includes information about both title and page number or chapter/verse, we encode the title and leave the other information unencoded. The only exception is standard Biblical and classical references, which are encoded with <regMe> only (no <title> or other internal encoding except <sic> or <orig> for typos and vuji).

Examples of potential uses of <bibl> would be: footnotes, marginal notes, parenthetical references associated with quotations, bibliography entries, citations accompanying epigraphs, and other explicit (often imperative) references to the text as a source for information or quotation.

Within <bibl>, we encode the author’s name (if present) using <author> with <persName> nested inside. We encode the title (if present) with <title>.

In cases where a citation includes more than one page reference within a given source (e.g. Revelations 2, 3, 6, 17), we encode the entire group within a single <bibl>.

Our criteria for encoding a reference with <bibl> are as follows:

1. Completeness: to be tagged with <bibl>, a reference needs to contain enough information to be useful (so that the user doesn’t just get a list of naked page references).

2. Separability: to be tagged with <bibl>, a reference needs to be syntactically separable from the text: usually by being set off with parentheses/commas/brackets/dashes, and by being unnecessary for the syntactic completeness of the surrounding text. Thus “In Aviarius, _Whortfeld the Miser_, lines 1-13 are unmistakeably echoes of Middleton” does not qualify, because the bibliographic information is embedded in the sentence rather than separated from it. However, in the following example the reference is separated and would be encoded with <bibl>:

        We may contemplate with pleasure his “footfalls few” (Spondee,

        _Inamorata_, p. 31)

3. Purity: to be tagged with <bibl>, a reference must contain nothing except reference information. This does not mean that no #PCDATA at all can be present in a <bibl> (things like punctuation and whitespace may be present), only that all character data should contribute to the reference. Descriptive phrases, etc., are right out. E.g.:

"The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License license is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software. (Free Software Foundation, in that most excellent hack of copyright law, _The GNU Public License_.)"

wouldn’t warrant a <bibl>, but “... (Free Software Foundation, _The GNU Public License_, preamble paragraph 1)” would. Currently, even a single preposition is enough to demote a phrase into non-<bibl> status, but we’re a little uncomfortable with this. For although “By William Shakespeare, in his play _Henry IV_, in the third act” is certainly not <bibl>, (and “Henry IV, III.ii.2” certainly is <bibl>), one could argue that “(Act III scene ii in _Henry IV_)” deserves <bibl>. This criterion should probably be taken together with the “separability” criterion, since references which are continuous with the surrounding text will more likely have other words embedded in them, while those which are separable are more likely to be pure as well. If a reference is separable, a small degree of impurity is tolerable.

The bibliographic information that is given in the text should be fully encoded inside a <bibl> using <title>, <author>, <publisher>, <biblScope> (for page numbers), etc. The only exception to this rule is where <regMe> is used to encode standard Biblical and classical references. In these cases, the only internal tagging needed is <sic> (for typographical errors) and <orig> (for vuji).

When the WWP starts to encode links to other texts, we will use <xref> to encode references to works to which an electronic link is made, and <bibl> to encode references to works to which no such link is made. (See also 070 on <xref>.)

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