Notes, endnotes, and footnotes: overview [067]


General overview of encoding notes, including footnotes, endnotes, marginal notes, and inline notes, and giving a summary of how notes are linked to the main text


The WWP uses the <note> element to encode all kinds of notes and note-like text components, including endnotes, footnotes, marginal notes, marginal symbols such as maniculae (little pointing hands), and callouts. Certain kinds of commentary on the text (inline and out-of-line) are also transcribed as <note>, if they interrupt the narrative and are clearly external to it: in other words, they are conceptually (though not formally) hypertextual. For manuscript annotations (that is, handwritten additions to the text) we use <add>, not <note>.

This entry gives a general overview of the WWP’s strategy for encoding notes. More detailed discussion of specific aspects of this encoding is provided in related entries.

The WWP has developed an alternate content model for <note>, since the TEI content model for <note> is too restrictive. For details, see 198.

The WWP encodes most notes (a few exceptions are noted below) within a separate <hyperdiv> element. This element was created by the WWP, and it is located within <text>, before the <front> element. See 112 for details. The only notes which are not encoded in the <hyperdiv> are inline notes, endnotes, and notes in the <teiHeader>. Within <note>, the content is encoded just as it would be in the main body of the text (including all phrase-level markup).

We use the anchored= attribute on <note> to indicate whether or not there is an anchor mark in the text; the value should be “yes” if there is, “no” if there isn’t. The default value is “yes”, so the value only needs to be specified in cases (such as marginal notes, inline notes, and some endnotes) where there is no anchor mark in the text.

Every note contains bi-directional links between the anchor point in the text and the note element itself (see below), so that the note points to its anchor, and the anchor in turn points back to the note. See 093 on linking the note to the text for more detail.

For all notes, the bidirectional link between the note and its anchor point should be encoded using the id= attributes of <note> and the element to which it points, the target= attribute of <note>, and the corresp= attribute on the element pointed to, as in the following example:

<note id="n001" target="a001">This is the note in the hyperdiv</note>

<anchor id="a001" corresp="n001"> (this is where the note is anchored)

Not all notes point to an <anchor> element. For any note which points to a word or phrase which carries encoding (e.g. <quote>, <persName>, etc.), the note’s target= value will point to the id= attribute on the element which surrounds the text segment being noted. The <anchor> element is only used in cases where the note does not appear to be linked to a segment of text, but rather to a point in the text flow. See 093 for more detail.

The WWP uses the type= attribute on <note> to classify notes according to their source. There are four possible values for type= on <note>: authorial, editorial, WWP, and temp. The default value is “authorial”, and we assume that all notes in the original text are authorial unless there are clear indications that they are by someone else. “Editorial” covers the contribution of anyone other than the author, including editors, translators, compilers, etc. Notes added by the WWP may have the values “WWP” or “temp”. Notes added temporarily for internal use take the “temp” value, and notes added permanently take the “WWP” value. All permanent notes by WWP members should be placed in the <noteStmt>.

A resp= attribute will record the author of the note (which might be the author, a contemporary editor, a modern editor, or the WWP). The resp= attribute should contain the name key for the person responsible for the content of the note. For authorial notes, no value is needed, since the value will be assumed to be the author’s name key. For editorial notes, the value of resp= should be the key of the editor of the work. For notes whose source cannot be assigned with confidence, we use a generic “anonymous” or “unknown” key, whose value is “unknown.zzx”. For WWP-generated notes (ones with the type= attribute values “temp” and “WWP”), use the appropriate key for the WWP employee, scholar, editor, etc., e.g. pcaton.xzc for Paul Caton.

Finally, the WWP does not use (and has removed from the DTD) the place= attribute on <note>, instead using rend=. We also do not encode any ruled lines separating the footnote space at the foot of the page from the main text block.


Some examples of notes illustrating the different kinds of structures and how to encode them. For clarity’s sake, id=, target=, anchored=, and rend= have been omitted.

Example 1. An example of a reasonably verbose note with all the usual parts:
<note><ref>Verse 1, line 3. <quote>Fairest Autumn fades</quote></ref>
<p>This line echoes the delightful, though too little known words of our national poet:
<quote><lg type="couplet">
<l>Though fairest autumn fades, let none deny</l>
<l>That spring in all its bliss is ever nigh.</l> </lg></quote>
<bibl>Gutworth, Scenes of Country Life, ll. 578&ndash;579.</bibl>
However, our present author has given the sentiment greater point.</p>
<respline>The Editor</respline></note>

Example 2. A very simple example illustrating the need for a <p> directly inside <note>, even if the <p> is very short:
<note><p>A duck.</p></note>

Example 3. Another example of a simple note, this time with only a bibliographic reference:
<note><bibl>Pope, The Rape of the Lock.</bibl></note>

Example 4. Another type of simple note, with just a <respLine>:

Example 5. In the following example, the first quotation is the one repeating the noted phrase from the text, and is contained within the <ref> element; the other quotations are from other sources which are being used to explain the noted phrase. Note that the <p> element does not start till after the initial <ref> element. (This is from Anne Francis, Song of Solomon, p. 67.)
<note><ref>Ver. 15. <quote>As pillars of marble, set upon sockets of fine gold.</quote></ref>
<p rend="break(no)"><quote part="I">Doubtless</quote> (says Mr. Harmer) <quote part="F">his legs being like pillars of marble, refers to the breeches [or drawers] of fine linen he wore; such garments being ordered to be worn by the priests of God, whose vestments were appointed for glory and beauty.</quote> <bibl>Exod. xxxiii.2, 42.</bibl>
<bibl>See Outl. p. 117.</bibl> Sandys says of the Turks, that <quote>they wear next the skin a smock of calico...</quote> <bibl>Lib. i. p. 49.</bibl></p></note>

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