Special terminology, irony, and other forms of textual highlighting [134]


Encoding of specialized language, including technical terminology, ironic usage, and words which are being discussed as words rather than used


The TEI includes a number of elements to encode words whose usage is not naturalized within the text but which the text instead points out as words. The WWP only encodes such words if they are renditionally distinguished in some way, including italics, quotation marks, or small caps/all caps. Initial capitalization does not count as renditional distinction in this case.

<soCalled>: this element should be used for words or phrases from which the narrator expresses a distance or ironic stance.

<term>: this element should be used for words which are function within the text as technical terms or specialized terminology (and are distinguished as such).

<gloss>: this element should be used for words which are used as glosses or definitions of some other word.

<mentioned>: this element should be used for words which are referred to as words, rather than being actually used as part of the meaning of the sentence. For instance:

<p> Did you pronounce <mention>oeillet</mention> correctly?</p>

The domain of <mentioned> and <term> overlap to some extent in their application and it may in some cases be difficult to tell which one to use. For instance, the phrase “renditional distinction” in the following sentence:

"We could define ‘renditional distinction’ as any characteristic by which a passage of text is set apart from its surroundings."

This phrase is a technical term, but it is also “mentioned” rather than used here. Furthermore, the criteria for determining when a word is “mentioned rather than used” can occasionally be difficult to apply. Some common formulations are easy to recognize:

"how do you say/pronounce FOO..?"

"...the word FOO..."

But there are more difficult cases:

"what do they call a FOO in such-and-such a language?" (since the word functions both as its denotational content and also as the word for that content)


Example 1.
Even with all his self-proclaimed <socalled rend="pre(&ldquo;) post(&rdquo)">talents</socalled>, he cut a pretty poor figure on the dance floor.

Example 2.
The <term rend="pre(&ldquo;) post(&rdquo)">topgallant</> is the first sail we’ll discuss today.

Example 3.
The carp <gloss rend="pre(/() post (/))">Cyprinus carpio</gloss> is rare in these waters.

Example 4.
The word <mentioned rend="pre(&ldquo;) post(&rdquo)">phthisis</mentioned> is nearly unpronounceable by the novice.

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