Final Report: A Textbase of Pre-Victorian Women's Writing in English

Grant Period: 1 July 1997 - 30 June 2000

Grant PA-22903-97 (Extension)
Brown University Women Writers Project
Julia Flanders, WWP Director, Brown University
Allen Renear, Co-Principal Investigator, Brown University
Susanne Woods, Co-Principal Investigator, Wheaton College
15 September 2000

This is a version of the final report submitted to NEH on September 15, 2000. It has been edited slightly for the web and some additional information has been added which did not appear in the original report.


During the three years covered by this grant, the Women Writers Project has completed the goals which we formulated in our grant proposal, and—perhaps more significantly—we have completed the larger goals with which we began our work in 1988, with our first NEH grant. Those goals were twofold: first, we aimed to create a digital collection of early women's writing which would make it possible to teach and study the full range of women's literate culture in the pre-Victorian period. And in support of this work, we wanted to research and publicize methods of digitization which could open up new approaches to research and teaching of humanities texts. In our final three years we have successfully published an extensive textbase of early women's writing, we have articulated in detail the methods by which the underlying systems were designed and developed, and we have shared these methods with other projects. The Women Writers Project collection is viewed by scholars, librarians, and other text encoding projects as a model of its kind, for its scholarly value, the thoroughness of its encoding, and the intellectual rigor with which it addresses problems of editorial method and electronic scholarship. The NEH can be justly proud of having funded such an undertaking, as we are proud to have been supported so generously and for so long.

In particular, during the course of this last grant period, we have added 50 texts to our collection; we have designed and implemented an innovative system of electronic delivery; we have contributed substantially to the ongoing research in text encoding of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) community; and we have developed a system for licensing the textbase by which the WWP is moving quickly towards financial self-sufficiency. All of these achievements contribute to making the WWP a long-term research center which can continue to support and expand the WWP textbase, so that it can remain a vital research tool for the study of women's writing.

Project Activities: Long Term Research

Although this report strictly speaking covers the three-year period of our most recent grant (including the one-year extension), the work which we have done during this time is the completion of research begun in previous grants. It may be helpful, therefore, to sketch the central strands of our work to give context for the completion and publication of Women Writers Online. The most important of these have been questions of text encoding methodology and of editorial methods.

Contribution to the Text Encoding Initiative

The WWP's text encoding research has been an ongoing dialogue with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), whose publication in 1994 of the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (P3) laid the foundation for text encoding research worldwide. The WWP's commitment to international standards such as TEI has been paired with an equally strong interest in the particularities of women's texts and early texts generally, and the need to do them justice at the encoding level as well as the reading level. What we have discovered in our research is that the texts in our collection frequently depart from the generic and structural expectations articulated in TEI, and that modifications to the standard are necessary in order to represent these documents accurately. We make these modifications to our own encoding system, but we also publish accounts of our changes in journals and at conferences, and we will pass on the results to the TEI when they begin their next revision of the Guidelines.

In addition to researching adaptations of TEI, the WWP has also served as a source of information and training for newer projects seeking to use TEI for primary sources. We have provided advice, DTDs, documentation, and training to projects including the following:

  • Deutsche Schriftstellerinen Projekt (German Women Writers Project, Brown University)
  • Early English Books Online (Bell and Howell)
  • The Emily Dickinson Archive (University of Maryland)
  • The Women's Travel Writing project (University of Minnesota)
  • The Decameron Web (Brown University)

Our complete documentation will be published at our web site within the next year.

There are several areas in which our research has added most significantly to the work of TEI, which we will sketch briefly here.

Rendition Ladders

Since the WWP has a strong interest in preserving material details of the source document, recording renditional information has always been a crucial part of our encoding. Information such as typeface, case, font shifts, indentation, and alignment provide the reader with important clues to the document's rhetorical shape and the linguistic resources available (through printing customs and the visual vernacular of the text) for the communication of meaning. The TEI does provide a system for recording renditional information, consisting of a single data space—in effect, room for a single adjective describing all facets of rendition, using the “rend” attribute

<name rend="italic">

However, using this method is awkward if there is more than one kind of information to record at once: for instance if a word is both in bold and in italics.

In order to pack all of the necessary information into this limited space, the WWP developed a system called “rendition ladders” which structure the rend attribute into a sequence of keywords and values. These can be parsed automatically by appropriate software and can be extended as needed, providing a powerful and flexible strategy for accommodating renditional data of any sort. Thus a heading might be encoded as follows:

<head rend="case(allcaps)slant(italic)align(center) break(yes)">

with the parentheses providing the delimiters between units necessary to allow automatic parsing of the individual keywords and values.

Letter-level versus word-level encoding

A number of the features which the WWP seeks to capture in our transcriptions are at the level of individual words or letters: for instance, abbreviations, printers' errors, old-style typography, wrong-font letters, and the like. In all of these cases, an individual letter or group of letters is flagged in some way and an alternate reading is supplied by the encoding. It is common practice among text encoding projects (and the TEI Guidelines also provide examples of this) to use these elements at the word level, e.g.:

<sic corr="level">lenel</sic>

This is entirely adequate for many situations, and particularly for lightly encoded texts where many of these features are not being marked at all. However, in earlier texts where all of these phenomena are much more frequent, an encoding project like the WWP which encodes quite intensively is bound to run into words where more than one of these elements is needed. In such cases, word-level encoding cannot be used, since it leaves uncertain how the interaction between the different elements and their respective alternate readings will be resolved.

What is significant here is not the insight required to notice and solve this problem (which is intellectually trivial) but the attention drawn to areas of text encoding in which the requirements of scholarly texts are quite different from ordinary online materials. Currently available SGML delivery software does not accommodate letter-level encoding, since it is designed largely for an industrial audience which has no need for such a feature. By illustrating the importance of letter-level encoding for scholarly purposes, the WWP provides additional impetus for the development of delivery software designed for scholarly use.

Documentation of source text

In an electronic collection of early printed texts, documentation of the source requires the identification not only of the edition but also of the particular copy used as the basis for transcription. This is important not only because of the likelihood of textual variants between individual copies of the same text, but also to enable scholars to identify the source text reliably so that they can consult it in person if they wish—a facet of electronic scholarship which reflects a desire to remind oneself that the object itself still exists.

The TEI makes extensive provision in the TEI header for documentation of the source at the edition level, but does not allow for identifying the individual copy (e.g. by library and call number), nor does it provide for bibliographic references such as Wing or STC numbers. The WWP has developed additional components of the header which allow us to offer more detailed documentation, including—if necessary—documentation of additional source texts consulted (e.g. in the case of partial illegibility) so that the attribution of every part of the transcription is always clear.

Editorial Methods

During the decade or so that the WWP has been active, scholarly conceptualizations of electronic sources have changed immensely. We have seen the terms of debate evolve as scholars come to terms with new kinds of sources and become acclimated to the idea of working in a new medium. We have also seen a sharp rise in familiarity with the basic concepts of text encoding, so that for many users—faculty, students, and librarians—the electronic text is no longer simply a black box but an intelligible system of content, encoding, metadata, search engine, and so forth. All of these factors have had considerable impact on attitudes about the editorial methods appropriate for electronic texts. Four essential issues have been particularly central to the shaping of the WWP's work and the resulting collection, which we sketch here in more detail.

Edition versus archive

One of the first questions to be raised as online collections of primary sources began to become more widespread was that of their status as editorial objects and scholarly products. Within the editorial continuum—with the critical edition at one end as the product of considerable scholarly labor and intervention, and the archive at the other end as a repository of untouched source material—online collections proved difficult to place. One of the purposes they were imagined to fulfill in relation to conventional print editions was to provide “all the material” so that instead of getting the result of a scholar's selection and intervention, the reader would be able to confront the primary materials for him/herself and arrive at independent editorial and critical judgments. Tightly coupled with this vision was the notion that electronic sources would be presented with a minimum of alteration—perhaps even through page images—to give the reader the most direct access possible to the primary source. This group of values tended to position the collection as some kind of “archive”, and for many projects (including the WWP) the rhetoric of the archive provided a very important way of conceptualizing the work as having a longer shelf life and a greater significance. Since these online collections were expensive and experimental, it was important that they not seem to be yet another scholarly product like the rest, subject to changes in taste and method, but instead a more permanent (because more incontrovertible and more generalized) resource which could be the basis for future editorial work.

At the same time, the concept of the archive had limitations as a model for online resources. Most importantly, it made it difficult to describe the role of text encoding: if the resource was a “raw”, unedited transcription, just the text and nothing more, then text encoding had to be seen as a completely objective, reproducible, and simplistic activity. In the case of HTML-encoded texts, this might have been the case, but for the projects using standards such as TEI or EAD—which clearly involved intellectual labor and interpretation of a very significant sort—it was hard to claim that no editorial decisions were being made. And indeed, there were good reasons to argue the contrary: in order to get scholars interested in this work and reap the benefit of their involvement, it was essential to show that text encoding at some level was simply another expression of the kinds of intellectual activities scholars have been undertaking for centuries. At a practical level too, it was only by making such an argument that projects were able to bridge the gap between “technical staff” and “scholars”, and to develop the kind of deep expertise that could produce the high-quality scholarly research tools which are now appearing.

The Women Writers Project has argued at times for both the editorial and the archival status of its texts and methods, and certainly they do partake of both in different ways. Although we do consider our texts to be editions, and our encoding to be an editorial act, our approach is closer in some ways to documentary editing than to the Bowers/Tanselle tradition of critical editing. Each of our texts is transcribed from a single source document, without correction or emendation from any other edition or copy. Features that require some kind of editorial treatment (for instance, typographical errors which appear in the original, artifacts of early typography such as the long s or the interchange of i/j, u/v, and vv/w) are recorded both as they appear in the text and with an emended value which can be displayed or concealed at will, and the same approach could be used for critical editing as well. All editorializing decisions, in other words, are preserved in a form which distinguishes them from the transcription of the source document. In this way we are able to treat the text as an archival document and as an edition, without compromising the function of either.

To the extent that the “edition” is an intellectual model which singles out individual texts for particular attention—while the “archive” functions most characteristically as a collection whose scale and comprehensiveness are the key to its interest—the textbase also works to bridge this difference. The individual text functions effectively for the user within the context of a larger collection precisely because its encoding enables it to do so, by registering its relationships of similarity and difference, its location within taxonomies, its participation in separate and collective meaning. And conversely, the collection only functions as such because of the encoded information through which the user apprehends the patterns and anomalies which are present. Text encoding thus allows both the creator and the user to bridge the gap of scale which formerly determined the character of the edition.

Treatment of the text

Within the framework described above, the WWP has chosen an editorial approach which as much as possible privileges the source text as a historical artifact whose details of apparatus, rendition, spelling, and diction are of significant interest. We feel that even students—whose needs are often cited as a reason to modernize spelling and even syntax—are by and large resourceful enough to deal with an unmodernized text, and when given the opportunity to consider the question for themselves (for instance, in an in-class editing exercise) usually opt for preservation of the source detail. We also feel that to erase the kind of historical distance which old spellings make evident is to pretend that the text can function as a timeless aesthetic object—a concept which has served women authors very poorly in the past.

Full documentation of our editorial methods is available at our web site. In brief, they can be summarized as follows:

Modernization: The WWP does not modernize the text in any way.

Regularization: The WWP encodes certain features of original typography—including the interchange of i/j. u/v, and vv/w—using TEI's <orig> element, and we record a regularized reading on the reg= attribute. We also silently regularize inter-word spacing, and we regularize certain features of the text's layout—including the details of ornaments, ruled lines, leaders, ellipsis—which do not contribute significantly to the meaning of the text.

Rendition: The WWP encodes many renditional details of the source document—including case, font, face, alignment, justification, indentation—using the rend= attribute (described in more detail above).

Emendation: The WWP encodes typographical errors in the original using TEI's <sic> element, and records the corrected reading on the corr= attribute. We also encode abbreviations using the <abbr> element, with the expanded reading encoded on the expan= attribute. We do not emend any readings which are not obvious printers' errors.

Annotation: The WWP does not currently provide any annotation in the usual sense for our texts. We have experimented with providing contextual essays for a subset of our collection, as part of our Renaissance Women Online project. These were clearly helpful to some users, particularly undergraduates, but they pose several problems. The first of these is that they risk becoming dated, particularly in the field of women's writing where new information and perspectives are emerging so quickly. In addition, such materials require a substantial commitment of effort from a large number of scholars, which can be difficult to fund and coordinate on a broad scale. Finally, it seems to us that our role in creating this collection should not be to provide commentary—which is always to some degree tendentious—but to focus our expertise on providing the text and allow others to comment. This approach does not rule out the creation of annotations by others, and indeed there is technology now being developed which will make it possible to create sets of annotations—for instance, a glossary or set of explanatory notes—and share or even publish them for others to use. This would be an excellent arrangement, since it would also solve the problem of how to address widely different audiences and their needs.

Project Activities: Publication of Women Writers Online

The publication of Women Writers Online is the central achievement of this grant period, and also marks the culmination of the WWP's work over more than a decade, since our first grant award from the NEH. It required extensive research on a number of different fronts, most significantly the interface and technical design, and the design of the legal and conceptual framework for the licensing arrangement itself. Although there were existing models in both of these areas, we feel the WWP improved on those models, and also managed to articulate a rationale for the kinds of improvements we were working towards.


We first explored the possibility of working with one of the publishers who are now undertaking electronic publication: Oxford University Press, Routledge, Cambridge University Press, Chadwyck-Healey, and a few others. Our assumption was that the advantages of commercial publication would be significant, offering access to established marketing venues and putting the burden of management and advertising onto the publishers' professional staff rather than on the WWP. Most importantly, we expected that the publisher would develop the delivery software and interface, thus solving our first challenge as well. At the time, both Routledge and CUP were in the process of launching ambitious new electronic ventures and developing delivery software which would allow the online publication of richly encoded SGML data over the web.

At the same time, our discussions with these publishers gradually revealed several differences of strategy and attitude which emerged as potential obstacles to collaboration. First, their approach to pricing was fundamentally different from ours, based on an extremely cautious assessment of the potential market. Assuming low sales for what they felt to be a niche product, they also assumed a need for correspondingly high prices in order to make back the investment, which in turn made higher sales still more implausible. Their approach would have recouped costs, but would have jeopardized the wide dissemination which was our fundamental aim. In addition, as we considered what we wanted to achieve by online publication, we found ourselves more and more concerned about retaining control over the data, setting our own schedules for upgrades, and allowing free research use. These were goals to which commercial publishers—given their business model and fiduciary responsibilities—quite reasonably felt cautious about committing themselves.

Our eventual decision to publish the collection ourselves, and to develop our own delivery system, turned out to be a welcome necessity. Two of the publishers' online delivery systems did not materialize as planned, owing to delays in programming, and began to look less likely to fit our criteria of functionality when completed. In particular both publishers seemed more interested in CD-ROM publication than in online distribution over the internet, a choice which seemed to us to go directly counter to our conception of how the collection would be used and distributed. Working with Chadwyck-Healey would still have been possible, but for a number of reasons we decided that we did not want to be absorbed into Chadwyck-Healey's Literature Online collection. For one thing, we found that the level of functionality which Chadwyck-Healey had made standard for their collection was considerably below what we had envisioned for Women Writers Online, and would not be likely to exploit our markup fully. This problem was compounded by the fact that the interface to WWO would necessarily be made homogeneous with the rest of the Chadwyck-Healey collection, leaving us with little scope for the kinds of special features we felt users would want and that we could provide. In addition we would lose control over how our work would be sold and represented. Self-publication would allow us a degree of autonomy and oversight which would be more valuable than we first imagined. And although (as a number of publishers pointed out to us) it would put the burden of marketing on our shoulders, we felt that our unusually close relationship with a substantial existing audience would give us an advantage in that area.

Interface and technical design

As creators of richly encoded SGML data, the WWP is one of a number of projects currently facing the same problem: the fact that SGML publication software is still scarce and designed for industrial production settings rather than academic projects in the humanities. Tools for publishing SGML content on the World Wide Web (such as INSO's DynaWeb) are even scarcer and are also not designed with scholarly uses in mind. The advent of XML is widely predicted to be a possible solution to these problems, but at the time the WWP was planning our initial publication, we had the choice of customizing an existing application or of designing one ourselves from scratch. Although the latter option would theoretically have given us more flexibility and control over the resulting product, there were a number of potential concerns. The expense of software development was first among these, particularly because the actual cost of creating a functional system from scratch was difficult to estimate with precision. We also knew that although we could probably develop an SGML-to-HTML transformation system fairly easily for our specific texts, we would not be able to make it general enough to allow for easy expansion, nor could we easily support the rapid content-based indexing provided by commercial software. Finally, creating a new application ourselves would necessarily be an all or nothing approach—we risked being caught with no delivery system at all if we encountered any serious problems. We had already experimented with INSO's DynaWeb software and although its default interface and functionality were ill-suited for our purposes, we thought we could build a customized interface with most of the functionality we sought. The advantages of this approach were that we would be able to start using the system in its uncustomized state almost immediately, and add improvements as we developed them. Furthermore, if the project turned out to be a long-term success, we could design a custom application ourselves later on, possibly taking advantage of the arrival of XML-aware software and support systems.

Accordingly we decided to build a custom interface and based our delivery system on INSO's DynaWeb software. In DynaWeb the underlying infrastructure of indexing, searching, and processing the encoded data (which is performed by DynaText, an SGML search engine) is separated from the display of this data on the web. The latter works by a system of style sheets which dynamically translate SGML data into HTML for web display. From the user's point of view, the data is simply HTML which can be viewed with a standard web browser. However, searches and word- or structure-based functions are passed back to the DynaText engine and performed on a preprocessed form of the SGML data, allowing for the exploitation of specialized markup. Thus for instance the user can limit a word search to verse drama, even though HTML has no ability to represent or flag particular genres. The advantages of this general solution for us were considerable: the user would not need any specialized software or skills, the purchasing institution would not need to install anything locally, and the value of our SGML encoding would not be lost by down-translation to HTML (as it would be in a static, one-time translation system). Also unlike systems like SoftQuad's Panorama, which downloads an SGML text to the user's computer and allows specialized processing to occur locally, DynaWeb can search and selectively display information from the entire corpus. Panorama requires custom software to be installed locally and can only really handle one document at a time, both disadvantages which ruled it out for the kinds of uses we wanted to encourage.

On top of this basic system, we created a custom interface which provides several important features:

  • Keyword-in-context (KWIC) display of search results, crucial for viewing large result sets. This display lists search hits with about 10 words of context surrounding each hit word, allowing the user to browse the hit list and quickly identify the hits of interest. This list is also sortable by author, date, and other categories, so that the user can get a quick profile of where the hits occur, or (if sorted by date) of the changing usage patterns over time for a given word. This feature is rarely available in standard industry text delivery systems, although academics have used them in highly individual or customized systems for a long time, and in print concordances for even longer.
  • Advanced search interface: Our search interface offers the user the ability to do word and phrase searches (including Boolean operators and wildcards), proximity searches, and context-sensitive searches which exploit the text's markup to narrow a search to particular textual features specific to this collection. In addition, the user can search based on bibliographical information, such as Wing or STC number, source library or shelfmark, length or size of the book, and facts of publication, based on metadata encoded in the TEI header. To these categories we will be adding genre and subject keywords as well within the next year. In our next upgrade, we will be offering the ability to combine these different kinds of searches (for instance, to find the word “wit” within ten words of “love” within dramatic texts written between 1670 and 1680). We will also be offering the ability to save a search, either to requery it more specifically, or to reuse it in a later session.
  • Navigational features: The challenge in delivering any large electronic collection is to ensure that the user never feels lost within the structure of the collection, or within any given text. Our customization offers intuitive navigation from text to text, and from section to section within a text; it also provides a clear sense of where the user is within the collection at all times. The system is able to take advantage of the structure imparted by SGML for display and chunking of the text, but at the same time it saves the user from the need to be always aware of the hierarchical structures imposed on the document by the encoding.

Licensing system

Our licensing system—the pricing and terms of access—was developed using existing online licensing systems as its point of departure, but with some significant adjustments that we felt would be essential to establish an equitable relationship between the WWP and our subscribers, and to address the concerns most frequently voiced by libraries.

Several points were clear to us from the start. We wanted to maximize the use of our collection, encourage exploration and experimentation, and minimize the burden on librarians and technical staff. We also wanted a system which would be easy for us to update and expand as often as necessary. For all of these reasons, we felt that offering site licenses with unlimited access, published over the Web and authenticated by IP address rather than password, was the optimal approach. IP address authentication offers transparent access to all on-campus users, and increasingly universities are using proxy servers to take care of off-campus access, so that getting into the collection is as effortless as possible. Web rather than CD-ROM publication was an easy choice, eliminating the burden of installation and ownership on the libraries' end, and the equal burden of production, mailing, and updating on our end. Offering unlimited use for an annual fee, rather than a per-use charge or a specified number of simultaneous users, seemed important to us as a way of removing obstacles to experimentation; with unlimited access paid in advance, teachers and students can feel free to browse and explore without feeling that they are incurring rising fees—an economy of scarcity which we had no interest in fostering. In addition, charging a single annual fee enabled libraries to budget more easily and eliminated bureaucracy.

One point raised early on was that of the libraries' equity in the collection: would the fees paid entitle them ultimately to some kind of ownership, as with a journal subscription? Although our goal of frequent updates made it difficult to envision selling the data directly to institutions, we concluded that they should have some assurance of a permanent stake in the collection. Our solution is to include a clause in our license agreement which guarantees, in the event that the WWP becomes unwilling or unable to continue publishing Women Writers Online, that every subscriber will receive a copy of the source data to do with as they please (consistent with the general terms of the original license). Although at present, given the paucity of cheap SGML publishing software, such a provision probably does not provide the same level of protection as, say, a run of back issues of a journal, within a few years XML publishing software will be available which will make the WWO source data a very adequate substitute for the real thing, should that become unavailable.

The final point on which our license is distinctive is in our treatment of activities like downloading and printing files and reusing downloaded materials. In general we do not restrict such activities at all, provided they are part of the personal, non-commercial research or teaching of members of the institution. We encourage faculty to make use of our materials in course packets, course web sites, and so forth, and we feel that such reuse does not threaten, but rather reinforces, the importance of the WWO collection. From our viewpoint, the collection as a whole—including its search functionality and other features—has an enormous value in addition to the separate value of the individual texts it contains, and it is this larger value on which the WWP's future prospects really rest.

Textbase Development

Aside from developing the interface and licensing system, the most important project activity was of course the continuing expansion of the WWP textbase and the preparation of the texts for online publication. Since we had also received a substantial grant from the Mellon Foundation to increase our coverage of the Renaissance period, our concern was to balance this emphasis with increased coverage of the 18th century. In addition, we were eager to broaden the generic range of the collection, giving greater attention to cultural materials which could provide a fuller image of the political, scientific, and religious context for the more literary texts already in the collection. The result was a highly diverse set of texts which offer an astonishing cross-section of the literate culture of the period, including discussions of midwifery, the universities, religious dissent, marriage, and the theater. A list of texts added during this grant period is included as Appendix A, and a full list of texts published in Women Writers Online is included as Appendix B.

Project Impact and Audience


The WWP has not yet undertaken any formal evaluation of Women Writers Online, although in the future we may do so as part of a major upgrade effort. However, there are some indicators which may be of use in assessing the project's impact on teaching and research, and on the community of digital resources. The first of these is the response of institutions, in the level of interest they have shown in the collection. This can be most easily expressed in the number of subscribers we have gained in our first yearÑ160 institutionsÑwhich is considerably more than we had expected. A predominance of these (XX percent) are multi-year subscriptions, indicating a high level of confidence and satisfaction at the outset; the number would be higher except that many of our subscribers are state institutions which are barred from entering into multi-year licenses. A second indicator is the response of users, which has also been very positive, as evidenced by email comments we receive and feedback from librarians. Finally, published reviews of WWO have been quite encouraging as well.

We have not conducted a formal study of patterns of scholarly research in women's writing, and thus any observations about the increase in articles and scholarly attention to texts in the WWP collection must remain anecdotal for the time being. Conclusions about causality will probably always be conjectural as well. However, during the time the WWP has been at work, first distributing printed texts and now providing online access, there has certainly been a strong upsurge in interest in early women's writing. Where in the 1980s, Victorian women's texts were the center of scholarly attention, during the 1990s greater interest has been paid to 18th-century and Renaissance materials, with an efflorescence of specialized conferences on topics in early women's writing. There has also been a considerable increase in the number of print editions of women's texts, confirming our early prediction that access to archives of primary sources would encourage the production of scholarly editions.


When the WWP was founded in the late 1980s, studying early women's writing at all was still something of a rarity, requiring explanation and defense; teaching it involved either establishing an entirely new course, or somehow shoehorning additional texts into already crowded syllabi. Given that these difficulties existed even in the USA and Britain—countries for whom these texts constituted an important part of cultural history—and given that resistance to women's writing was so strong even in the academy, where intellectual curiosity might be thought highest, our expectation was that the audience outside the academy in the US and Britain would be small to the point of insignificance. Our working assumption was that our subscribers would be drawn from large research institutions, and that the collection would be regarded as a somewhat arcane niche product. We also assumed that for practical reasons, the audience might be further limited by the need for network access, making it difficult for people from smaller schools to use the collection.

Intellectual changes since then have worked in our favor, as have technological developments. Women's writing has grown immensely in stature within the academy, and this—perhaps combined with the fact that a predominance of acquisition librarians are female—has helped us argue successfully for the importance of a collection like WWO. In addition, the advent and immense spread of the World Wide Web has enabled us to reach a very broad subscribership that spans the range of research institutions, liberal arts colleges, state universities, and even small community colleges, all of whom are now wired. We have also begun to reach an audience outside the US and Britain, with subscribers or trials in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, and Israel. We now feel that we could also cultivate an audience within high schools and public libraries, which have lately begun to show an interest.

In short, the Web has proven a friendly environment for us, and may prove more so with time. The inquisitiveness it fosters, and its ability to aggregate far-flung communities of users with common interests, both work to the advantage of specialized collections like ours.

Continuation of the project

Although publication of Women Writers Online brings an important era in the WWP's history to a close, it is much more palpably a beginning than an end for us. The completion of this major milestone opens up opportunities for new research and expansion, and the establishment of a small but regular funding stream gives us the wherewithal to pursue these possibilities. We see the WWO collection as an assurance, at last, that the WWP will continue to thrive.

Our plans for continuing the WWP's work revolve around several commitments and interests. Most important is the ongoing maintenance and expansion of Women Writers Online. This will remain the centerpiece of our activities and our identity as a project, as well as the key to our survival. We plan to continue adding texts at a rate which will depend on our revenue, but will be at least 30 texts each year, an increase of approximately 15% annually. We will also be writing future grant proposals to fund specific textbase additions—for instance, colonial texts, scientific texts, texts by women of color. Perhaps most significantly for the scope of our collection, we are planning to begin investigating the challenge of manuscript transcription, starting with a conference which will bring together medievalists, paleographers, and text encoding experts to discuss the best approaches.

We plan to undertake some basic improvements to the interface for WWO, but an opportunity for a thorough overhaul will probably come in a year or so as part of a joint initiative (with the Scholarly Technology Group at Brown) to develop a new XML delivery system, replacing the DynaText/DynaWeb suite we now use.

A number of collaborative partnerships have emerged over the past several years, and these hold promise for future endeavors. Most importantly, we hope to work with other online collections of women's writing—of which there are now quite a few—to investigate the possibility of integrated access or joint publication of some sort. We have discussed this explicitly with the Orlando project at the University of Alberta, and to a lesser extent with the Victorian Women Writers Project and the British Women's Romantic Poetry project.

Overview of Success in Reaching Workplan Objectives

During this grant period, the WWP achieved the central objectives described in our workplan, although in some cases the specific methods were different because of changes in circumstances. Thus for instance we were unable to collaborate with CETH as we had planned, because of organizational changes they suffered during this time, but we accomplished our beta-testing goals using our beta-testing group instead. Similarly, because we were forced to self-publish rather than working with a commercial publisher, more of our work had to go into interface design and the creation of a licensing system than we had expected. As a result, the total size of Women Writers Online when initially published was only about 200 texts instead of the 300 we had hoped for (although the total number of new texts encoded under this grant was as we had planned). However, the 200-text collection has proved large enough to attract subscribers, and we are now working to make up the difference as quickly as possible. Finally, although the workplan described a substantial corpus of writings by women of color as part of the new additions, in fact we encountered substantial delay in acquiring copies of many of the texts we had hoped to encode in this group. We have added a few of the texts in this category, but most will be encoded within the next few years. In their place, for this grant, we encoded a number of texts which amplify the cultural range of the textbase in other ways: for instance, discussions of midwifery, religious dissent, and travel narratives.

Textbase Development

During this grant period, as planned, we added 50 new texts to the collection. A list of texts added is included in Appendix A. A full list of texts in Women Writers Online is included in Appendix B. We also amplified our TEI headers to include additional information, and in collaboration with the Brown University Library we created and distributed MARC records for all of our texts.

Delivery and Access

As reported in our last Interim Performance Report, the electronic publication of the WWP textbase was successfully accomplished in August 1999, and as of June 30, 2000 the WWP had amassed 160 institutional subscribers. A list of subscribers is included in Appendix E, and an internal report on our first year of licensing is in Appendix F.

During this grant period WWP staff also presented WWP research and did demonstrations of Women Writers Online at conferences. A list of project activities, including papers, demonstrations, and other activities, is included in Appendix G.

Appendix A

List of texts added with NEH funding during 1997-2000

  • Ariadne, She Ventures, and He Wins, 1696
  • Astell, Mary, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, 1694
  • Astell, Mary, Reflections upon Marriage, 1706
  • Barbauld, Anna Laetitia (Aikin), The Works of Anna Laetitia Barbauld, 1826
  • Behn, Aphra, A Pindaric Poem to the Reverend Doctor Burnet, 1689
  • Boyd, Elizabeth, Variety: A Poem, 1727
  • Bradstreet, Anne (Dudley), Several Poems, 1678
  • Cellier, Elizabeth (Dormer), Malice Defeated, 1680
  • Cellier, Elizabeth (Dormer), To Dr. ---- An Answer to his Queries, Concerning the College of Midwives, 1688
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman), The ManÕs Bewitched, 1709
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman), The Platonic Lady, 1707
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman), The Wonder: A Woman Keeps a Secret, 1714
  • Chandler, Elizabeth Margaret, Essays, Philanthropic and Moral, 1845
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse), Poems, 1813
  • D'Anvers, Alicia (Clarke), Academia: or, the Humours of the University of Oxford, 1691
  • D'Anvers, Alicia (Clarke), The Oxford-Act: A Poem, 1613
  • Dixon, Sarah, Poems on Several Occasions, 1740
  • Egerton, Sarah (Fyge), Poems on Several Occasions, Together with a Pastoral, 1703
  • Egerton, Sarah (Fyge), The Female Advocate, 1686
  • Elizabeth I, The True Copy of a Letter, 1586
  • Finch, Anne (Kingsmill), Countess of Winchilsea, Aristomenes, or the Royal Shepherd, 1713
  • Finch, Anne (Kingsmill), Countess of Winchilsea, Miscellany Poems on Several Occasions, 1713
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler), Adventures of Eovaai, Princess of Ijaveo, 1736
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler), The British Recluse, 1722
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler), The Fair Hebrew, 1729
  • Killigrew, Anne, Poems by Mrs. Anne Killigrew, 1686
  • Leapor, Mary , Poems Upon Several Occasions, 1748-51
  • Liddiard, J. S. Anna, Mont St. Jean, a Poem, and Theodore and Laura, a Tale, 1816
  • Manley, Delarivier, Letters Written by Mrs. Manley, 1696
  • Maxwell, Caroline, Feudal Tales, 1810
  • Moise, Penina, FancyÕs Sketch Book, 1833
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith), The Beau Defeated, 1700
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith), The Deceiver Deceived, 1698
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith), The Innocent Mistress, 1697
  • Plato, Ann, Essays, 1841
  • Prince, Nancy, A Narrative of the Life and Travels of Mrs. Nancy Prince, 1850
  • Robinson, Mary (Darby), Impartial Reflections on the Present Situation of the Queen of France, 1791
  • Rowe, Elizabeth (Singer), Friendship in Death, 1728
  • Rowe, Elizabeth (Singer), Poems on Several Occasions, 1696
  • Tollet, Elizabeth, Poems on Several Occasions, with Anne Boleyn to Henry VIII, 1756
  • Trotter, Catharine, Letters of Love and Gallantry, 1694
  • Trotter, Catharine, OlindaÕs Adventures, 1693
  • [unknown], The Fortunate Transport, 1750
  • Warren, Mercy (Otis), The Group, 1775
  • Wheatley, Phillis, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, 1773
  • Whitrow, Joan, The Humble Address of the Widow Whitrowe to King William, 1689
  • Whitrow, Joan, The Humble Salutation and Faithful Greeting of the Widow Whitrowe to King William, 1690
  • Whitrow, Joan, The Widow WhiterowÕs Humble Thanksgiving for the KingÕs Safe Return, 1694
  • Whitrow, Joan, The Work of God in a Dying Maid, 1677
  • Whitrow, Joan, To King William and Queen Mary, Grace and Peace, 1692

Appendix B

Full list of texts included in Women Writers Online

  • Aikin, Lucy. Epistles on Women, 1810
  • Anger, Jane. Jane Anger Her Protection for Women, 1589
  • Ariadne. She Ventures, and He Wins, 1696
  • Askew, Anne. The First Examination of Anne Askew, 1546
  • Astell, Mary. A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, 1694
  • Astell, Mary. Reflections upon Marriage, 1706
  • Augustine, Sister Magdalen, trans. (from Luke Wadding). The History of the Angelical Virgin Glorious S. Clare (Introductory material), 1635
  • Bacon, Ann (Cooke), trans. (from Bernardino Ochino). Sermons of Barnardine Ochine of Sena, Translator's Preface, 1548
  • Bacon, Ann (Cooke), trans. (from John Jewel). An Apology or Answer in Defence of the Church of England, 1564
  • Bannerman, Anne. Poems, 1800
  • Barbauld, Anna Laetitia (Aikin). A Legacy for Young Ladies, 1826
  • Barbauld, Anna Laetitia (Aikin). Reasons for National Penitence, 1794
  • Barbauld, Anna Laetitia (Aikin). Sins of Government, Sins of the Nation, 1793
  • Barbauld, Anna Laetitia (Aikin). The Works of Anna Laetitia Barbauld, 1826
  • Bath, Elizabeth. Poems on Various Occasions, 1806
  • Behn, Aphra. A Discovery of New Worlds, Translator's Preface, 1688
  • Behn, Aphra. A Pindaric Poem to the Reverend Doctor Burnet, 1689
  • Behn, Aphra. A Voyage to the Isle of Love, 1684
  • Behn, Aphra. Poems Upon Several Occasions, 1684
  • Benger, Elizabeth Ogilvy. The Female Geniad, 1791
  • Biddle, Hester. A Warning from the Lord God, 1660
  • Biddle, Hester. The Trumpet of the Lord Sounded Forth Unto These Three Nations, 1662
  • Boothby, Frances. Marcelia: or the Treacherous Friend, 1670
  • Boyd, Elizabeth. Variety: A Poem, 1727
  • Bradstreet, Anne (Dudley). The Tenth Muse, 1650
  • Carleton, Mary. The Case of Madam Mary Carleton, 1663
  • Cartwright, Joanna. The Petition of the Jews, 1649
  • Cary, Elizabeth (Tanfield), Viscountess Falkland. The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II, 1680
  • Cary, Elizabeth (Tanfield), Viscountess Falkland. The History of the Most Unfortunate Prince King Edward II, 1680
  • Cary, Elizabeth (Tanfield), Viscountess Falkland. The Tragedy of Mariam, 1613
  • Cary, Mary. The Little Horns Doom and Downfall, and A New and More Exact Map, 1651
  • Cassan, Mrs. Poems, 1806
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. A Comedy of the Apocryphal Ladies, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. A Piece of a Play, 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Bell in Campo, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Loves Adventures, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Nature's Three Daughters, Beauty, Love and Wit, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Natures Pictures, 1656
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy, 1666
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Plays, 1662 (preliminary matter)
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Plays (concluding matter), 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Plays Never Before Printed (preliminary matter), 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Poems and Fancies, 1653
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Bridals, 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Comical Hash, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Convent of Pleasure, 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Female Academy, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Lady Contemplation, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Life of William Cavendish, 1667
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Matrimonial Trouble, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Presence, 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Public Wooing, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Religious, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Several Wits, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Sociable Companions, or the Female Wits, 1668
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Unnatural Tragedy, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. The Worlds Olio, 1655
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Wits Cabal, 1662
  • Cavendish, Margaret (Lucas), Duchess of Newcastle. Youth's Glory, and Death's Banquet, 1662
  • Cellier, Elizabeth (Dormer). Malice Defeated, 1680
  • Cellier, Elizabeth (Dormer). To Dr. ---- An Answer to his Queries, Concerning the College of Midwives, 1688
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman). The Man's Bewitched, 1709
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman). The Platonic Lady, 1707
  • Centlivre, Susanna (Freeman). The Wonder: A Woman Keeps a Secret, 1714
  • Chidley, Katharine. A New-Years Gift, 1645
  • Chidley, Katharine. Good Counsel, to the Petitioners for Presbyterian Government, 1645
  • Chidley, Katharine. The Justification of the Independent Churches of Christ, 1641
  • Clinton, Elizabeth (Knyvett). The Countess of Lincoln's Nursery, 1622
  • Clive, Catherine. The Case of Mrs. Clive, 1744
  • Collier, Mary. The Woman's Labour, 1739
  • Collins, An. Divine Songs and Meditations, 1653
  • Cooper, Mrs. An Address to the People of Wapping and Its Environs, 1770
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). A Bold Stroke for a Husband, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). A Day In Turkey, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). Albina, a Tragedy, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). Green Coat and Brown Coat, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). More Ways Than One, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). The Belle's Stratagem, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). The Fate of Sparta, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). The Runaway, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). The Scottish Village: or, Pitcairne Green, 1786
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). Poems, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). The works of Mrs. Cowley (Preface), 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). Which is the Man?, 1813
  • Cowley, Hannah (Parkhouse). Who's the Dupe?, 1813
  • D'Anvers, Alicia (Clarke). Academia: or, the Humours of the University of Oxford, 1691
  • D'Anvers, Alicia (Clarke). The Oxford-Act: A Poem, 1613
  • Davies, Lady Eleanor. The Word of God, 1644
  • Davies, Lady Eleanor. Tobits Book: A Lesson (1652)
  • Davys, Mary. The Reformed Coquet; or Memoirs of Amoranda, 1752
  • De Fleury, Maria. British Liberty Established, 1790
  • Deacon, Pudentiana, trans. (from Francis de Sales). Delicious Entertainments of the Soul (introductory materials), 1632
  • Dixon, Sarah. Poems on Several Occasions, 1740
  • Downing, Harriet. Mary, or Female Friendship, 1816
  • Dowriche, Anne (Edgecombe). The French History, 1589
  • Du Verger, Susanne, trans. (from Jean-Pierre Camus). Admirable Events (Epistle Dedicatory), 1639
  • Edgeworth, Maria. Letters for Literary Ladies, 1795
  • Egerton, Sarah (Fyge). Poems on Several Occasions, Together with a Pastoral, 1703
  • Egerton, Sarah (Fyge). The Female Advocate, 1686
  • Elizabeth I. A Most Excellent and Remarkable Speech, 1575
  • Elizabeth I. A Second Speech of Queen Elizabeth, 1601
  • Elizabeth I. A Speech Made by Queen Elizabeth Concerning the Spanish Invasion, 1593
  • Elizabeth I. Her Majesty's Most Princely Answer (The Golden Speech), 1601
  • Elizabeth I. Queen Elizabeth's Speech to Her Last Parliament, 1601 (published 1642)
  • Elizabeth I. The Accession Speech and Prayer, 1558
  • Elizabeth I. The Golden Speech, 1601
  • Elizabeth I. The Last Speech and Thanks of Queen Elizabeth, 1601
  • Elizabeth I. The Marriage Speech (extemporaneous version), 1599
  • Elizabeth I. The Marriage Speech (parliamentary version), 1599
  • Elizabeth I. The Tilbury speech (Aske's version), 1588
  • Elizabeth I. The Tilbury speech (version in Cabala), 1588
  • Elizabeth I. The True Copy of a Letter, 1586
  • Elizabeth I, trans. (from Marguerite d'Angouleme). A Godly Meditation of the Christian Soul, 1548
  • Evans, Katharine. This is a Short Relation, 1662
  • Fell, Margaret (Askew). A Declaration and an Information from us the People of God called Quakers, 1660
  • Fell, Margaret (Askew). A Loving Salutation to the Seed of Abraham, 1656
  • Fell, Margaret (Askew). An Evident Demonstration to God's Elect, 1660
  • Fell, Margaret (Askew). This Was Given to Major General Harrison and the Rest, 1660
  • Fell, Margaret (Askew). Women's Speaking Justified, 1667
  • Finch, Anne (Kingsmill), Countess of Winchilsea. Aristomenes, or the Royal Shepherd, 1713
  • Finch, Anne (Kingsmill), Countess of Winchilsea. Miscellany Poems on Several Occasions, 1713
  • Finch, B. Sonnets and Other Poems, 1805
  • Gray, Alexia, trans. (from Saint Benedict). The Rule of the Most Blissed Father Saint Benedict (dedication), 1632
  • Grey, Elizabeth, Countess of Kent. A True Gentlewoman's Delight, 1653
  • Grymeston, Elizabeth (Bernye). Miscellanea, Meditations, Memoratives, 1604
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler). Adventures of Eovaai, Princess of Ijaveo, 1736
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler). Bath-Intrigues, 1725
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler). The Fair Hebrew, 1729
  • Haywood, Eliza (Fowler). The Female Spectator, 1745-46
  • Hemans, Felicia Dorothea (Browne). Hymns on the Works of Nature, for the Use of Children, 1827
  • Holford, Margaret (Wrench). Gresford Vale; and Other Poems, 1798
  • Instone, Sarah. Poems on Several Occasions, 1797
  • Johnson, Mary F.. Original Sonnets, and Other Poems, 1810
  • Jones, Anna Maria. The Poems of Anna Maria, 1793
  • Jones, Sarah. To Sion's Lovers, 1644
  • Killigrew, Anne. Poems by Mrs. Anne Killigrew, 1686
  • Lanyer, Aemilia (Bassano). Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum, 1611
  • Leigh, Dorothy (Kemp). The Mother's Blessing, 1616
  • Lickbarrow, Isabella. A Lament Upon the Death of Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte, and Alfred, A Vision, 1818
  • Lickbarrow, Isabella. Poetical Effusions, 1814
  • Liddiard, J. S. Anna. Mont St. Jean, a Poem, and Theodore and Laura, a Tale, 1816
  • Lilburne, Elizabeth. The Outcries of Oppressed Commons, 1647
  • Lilburne, Elizabeth. To the Chosen and Betrusted Knights, 1646
  • Locke, Anne (Vaughan), trans. (from Jean Taffin). Of the Marks of the Children of God (Dedicatory Epistle), 1590
  • Love, Mary (Stone). Love's Name Lives, 1663
  • Man, Judith, trans. (from Nicholas Coeffeteau). An Epitome of the History of Fair Argenis and Polyarchus (introductory material), 1640
  • Manley, Delarivier. Letters Written by Mrs. Manley, 1696
  • Maxwell, Caroline. Feudal Tales, 1810
  • Melvill, Elizabeth. A Godly Dream, 1606
  • Munda, Constantia. The Worming of a Mad Dog, 1617
  • O'Neill, Frances (Carroll). Poetical Essays; Being a Collection of Satirical Poems, Songs and Acrostics, 1802
  • Owen, Jane. An Antidote Against Purgatory, 1634
  • Owenson, Sydney. Poems, 1801
  • Parr, Katharine. Prayers Stirring the Mind unto Heavenly Meditations, 1545
  • Parr, Katharine. The Lamentation of a Sinner, 1548
  • Parr, Susanna. Susanna's Apology Against the Elders, 1659
  • Philips, Joan. Female Poems on Several Occasions, 1679
  • Philips, Katherine (Fowler). Poems, 1667
  • Philips, Katherine (Fowler). Poems, 1664
  • Philips, Katherine (Fowler), trans. (from Pierre Corneille). Horace, 1667
  • Philips, Katherine (Fowler), trans. (from Pierre Corneille). Pompey, 1667
  • Philips, Katherine (Fowler), trans. (from Pierre Corneille). Pompey, 1663
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith). The Beau Defeated, 1700
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith). The Deceiver Deceived, 1698
  • Pix, Mary (Griffith). The Innocent Mistress, 1697
  • Plato, Ann. Essays, 1841
  • Poole, Elizabeth. A Vision, 1648
  • Primrose, Diana. A Chain of Pearl, 1630
  • R., M.. The Mother's Counsel or, Live Within Compass, 1630
  • Robinson, Mary (Darby). Impartial Reflections on the Present Situation of the Queen of France, 1791
  • Robinson, Mary (Darby). Sappho and Phaon (prefatory material), 1796
  • Robinson, Mary (Darby). The Poetical Works of the Late Mrs. Mary Robinson, 1824
  • Robinson, Mary (Darby). Thoughts on the Condition of Women, 1799
  • Roper, Margaret (More), trans. (from Desiderius Erasmus). A Devout Treatise upon the Pater Noster, 1526
  • Rowe, Elizabeth (Singer). Friendship in Death, 1728
  • Russell, Elizabeth, trans. (from John Ponet). A Way of Reconciliation (introductory material), 1605
  • Ryves, Eliza. The Hastiniad, 1784
  • Scott, Mary. The Female Advocate, 1774
  • Sharp, Jane. The Midwives Book, 1671
  • Sidney, Mary, Countess of Pembroke. Dialogue Between Two Shepherds In Praise of Astrea, 1602
  • Sidney, Mary, Countess of Pembroke. The Doleful Lay of the Fair Clorinda, 1595
  • Sidney, Mary, trans. (from Philippe de Mornay). A Discourse of Life and Death, 1592
  • Sidney, Mary, trans. (from Robert Garnier). The Tragedy of Antony, 1595
  • Sowernam, Ester. Esther Hath Hanged Haman, 1617
  • Speght, Rachel. A Muzzle for Melastomus, 1617
  • Speght, Rachel. Certain Queries to the Baiter of Women, 1617
  • Speght, Rachel. Mortalities Memorandum, 1621
  • Stagg, Anne. A True Copy of the Petition, 1641
  • Tattle-well, Mary. The Women's Sharp Revenge, 1640
  • Taylor, Jane. Essays in Rhyme, 1816
  • Trapnel, Anna. Strange and Wonderful News, 1654
  • Trapnel, Anna. The Cry of a Stone, 1654
  • Tyler, Margaret. The Mirror of Princely Deeds and Knighthood (introductory material), 1578
  • [unknown]. Eliza's Babes, 1652
  • [unknown]. England's Tears: A Poem, 1774
  • [unknown]. Swetnam, the Woman-Hater, Arraigned by Women, 1620
  • [unknown]. The Female Wits, 1704
  • [unknown]. The Fortunate Transport, 1750
  • [unknown]. The Wonderful Discovery of the Witchcrafts of Margaret and Phillip Flower, 1619
  • Various authors. The Second Lamp of Virginity, 1582
  • Waite, Mary. Epistle from the Women's Yearly Meeting at York, and an Epistle from Mary Waite, 1688
  • Weamys, Anna. A Continuation of Sir Philip Sydney's Arcadia, 1651
  • Wheathill, Anne. A Handful of Wholesome (Though Homely) Herbs, 1584
  • Whitney, Isabella. A Sweet Nosegay, or Pleasant Posy, 1573
  • Whitney, Isabella. The Copy of a Letter, 1567
  • Whitrow, Joan. The Humble Address of the Widow Whitrowe to King William, 1689
  • Whitrow, Joan. To King William and Queen Mary, Grace and Peace, 1692
  • Williams, Helen Maria. A Farewell for Two Years to England, 1791
  • Woolley, Hannah. The Cook's Guide: or, Rare Receipts for Cookery, 1664

Appendix G: list of activities and publications, 1997-2000

Project Activities

The following is a selected list of the activities of the WWP and its staff during the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 2000.

  • September 8-9, 2000, the WWP holds its 2000 Annual Meeting.
  • “An Altruistic Small Textbase Publishing Strategy,” by Julia Flanders and Elli Mylonas, DL 2000, San Antonio, Texas, May 2000.
  • In March 2000, Paul Caton consults with the Early English Books Online group to develop a tag set for transcription of selected texts from the Wing and STC microfilm series.
  • “Computing? What have the humanities to do with IT?”, by Julia Flanders, presented to the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities, University of Maryland, February 2000.
  • “Inside the Black Box: Designing and Understanding Online Research Tools,” by Julia Flanders, presented at the conference of the Modern Language Association, Chicago, December 1999.
  • Women Writers Project hosts an exhibition booth together with the Victorian Women Writers Project and the Dickinson Electronic Archives at the Modern Language Association convention, Chicago, December 1999.
  • “Between Source and Screen: Considering Textual Integrity in an Electronic Edition,” (invited lecture) by Julia Flanders, presented at Biblioteche elettriche: VIII incontro di studi di Informatica Umanistica, Verona, November 1999.
  • “From Textual to Digital: What difference does text encoding make?”, by Julia Flanders, presented at a two-day workshop on Digital Libraries: Individual Needs, Common Concerns hosted at Tufts University, November 1999.
  • Women Writers Project participates in a special session on Women Writers and Computers at the annual 18th and 19th century British Women Writers Conference, Albuquerque, September 1999.
  • August 18, 1999, the WWP holds its 1999 Annual Meeting.
  • Women Writers Project hosts an exhibition booth at the American Library Association convention, New Orleans, July 1999.
  • “Using <TEXT> in TEI Markup,” by Paul Caton, presented at ACH/ALLC 1999, Charlottesville, VA, June 1999.
  • “Playing with the Guidelines: Topics in Text Encoding at the WWP,” by Syd Bauman, poster presentation at ACH/ALLC 1999, Charlottesville, VA, June 1999.
  • “Encoding Renditional Information in Primary Source Texts,” by Julia Flanders and Paul Caton, presented at ACH/ALLC 1999, Charlotteville, Virginia, June 1999.
  • “Challenges in the Design of Online Full-Text Databases: Creating 'Rich' Text Encoding,” by Carole Mah, presented at ACH/ALLC 1999, Charlottesville, VA.
  • “Real Editions for Real People: Editing and Encoding Women's Theatre Texts and Materials,” by Julia Flanders, presented at the conference of the Modern Language Association, San Francisco, December 1998.
  • “Traditional Standards, Innovative Methods: Using and Understanding Electronic Editions,“ by Julia Flanders and Paul Caton; workshop presentation at the conference of the Group for Early Modern Cultural Studies, Newport, Rhode Island, November 1998.
  • ”Scholarly Habits and Digital Resources,“ by Julia Flanders, presented at Digital Resources in the Humanities, Glasgow, September 1998.
  • July 17-18, 1998, the WWP holds its 1998 Annual Meeting.
  • ”Early Women Writers and Postmodern Culture: Creating and Teaching with the Brown Women Writers Project Textbase,“ by Paul Caton, workshop at Attending to Early Modern Women: Crossing Boundaries, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, November 1997.
  • “TEI and the Encoding of the Physical Structure of Books,” by Syd Bauman and Terence Catapano, presented at the Text Encoding Initiative 10th Anniversary Conference, Brown University, November 1997.
  • &rldquo;Keying <name>s: the WWP Approach,” by Syd Bauman, presented at the Text Encoding Initiative 10th Anniversary Conference, Brown University, November 1997.
  • “Data and Wisdom: Electronic Editing and the Quantification of Knowledge” (invited lecture), by Julia Flanders, presented at Computing the Edition (the 1997 Conference on Editing Problems), Toronto, Ontario, November 1997. Forthcoming in conference proceedings from University of Toronto Press.
  • “Introduction to Using the TEI,” 1-day seminar taught by Julia Flanders at the Ecole thematique “Codage et Manipulation de ressources linguistiques” at CRIN, Nancy, France, September 1997.
  • September, 1997, the WWP participates in a 1-day meeting on best practices for TEI headers, Oxford University. The results are presented as a paper at the TEI10 conference, November 1997, Brown University, and published in Computers and the Humanities 33:1-2 (April 1999).
  • July, 1997: Syd Bauman teaches a one-week workshop entitled “Making Text Work” at the CETH Summer Workshop on SGML and the TEI.


  • Caton, Paul. “Putting Renaissance Women Online,” Proceedings of the ICCC/IFIP Working Conference on Electronic Publishing '97. ICCC Press.
  • Flanders, Julia. “Gender and the Politics of the Electronic Text,” in Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory, ed. Kathryn Sutherland, Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Flanders, Julia. “Trusting the Electronic Edition.” Computers and the Humanities, vol. 32 (1998).
  • Flanders, Julia, Paul Caton, and Syd Bauman. “Nouns Proper and Improper: Using the TEI for primary sources,” with Sydney Bauman and Julia Flanders. Computers and the Humanities, vol. 32 (1998).